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Medical Suction

The Challenge

There is a lack of medical suction and fluid containment capability for chest tube and airway management in partial gravity and microgravity environments.

The Research

NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program, developed a system that recovers air from a three phase mixture which includes bio-solids and liquids in a reduced gravity environment. The phase separator is capable of easy cleaning and operates with minimum consumables.

The Progress

NASA GRC leveraged fluid physics expertise to demonstrate a technology proof of concept to contain and separate bio-fluid constituents in reduced gravity.

Current development includes developing requirements and concept of operations for the Medical Suction Patient Interface (MSPI). This will provide the interface information for relevant subsystems, including the patient, caregiver, vehicle generated vacuum, separation, and medical system. The planned multifaceted interface will include:

– Patient to MSPI interface comprised of tubes and tips to perform dental, gastric, and pulmonary suction

– Caregiver to MSPI interface to provide the ability to vary the vacuum level and keep a log of that level as a function of time

– Vehicle to MSPI interface comprised of the vacuum forcing function, health and status data for the separator, and a log of caregiver-selected treatment variables as a function of time

– Medical System to MSPI interface comprised of sensor data from the patien and command data selected by the caregiver as inputs to record in both the patient medical history file and any automated clinical decision support tools

Acronyms

GRC – Glenn Research Center
NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration
SBIR – Small Business Innovation Research

Technical Data

Medical Suction Gaps

What is an HRP Gap?

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the links below the for more information.

Medical-701: Increase inflight medical capabilities

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Cardiovascular Impacts

What are the in-flight alterations in cardiac structure and function?

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Measuring VO2 inflight

What is VO2max in-flight and immediately post-flight?

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Predicting Heart Disease

Can manifestations of sub-clinical or environmentally induced cardiovascular diseases during spaceflight be predicted?

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Outcome of Medical Events

We do not know the quantified health and mission outcomes due to medical events during exploration missions.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Doctor on Board?

We do not know how the inclusion of a physician crew medical officer quantitatively impacts medical risk during exploration missions.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Microgravity Countermeasures

How does 1/6-g and 3/8-g influence countermeasures?

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Efficient Exercise Regimen

Develop the most efficient and effective exercise program for the maintenance of muscle function.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Minimum Exercise Needed?

What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks?

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Exercise Hardware

Identify and validate exploration countermeasure hardware for the maintenance of muscle function.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Time Course of Changes in Muscle

Characterize the time course of changes in muscle protein turnover, muscle mass, and function during long duration space flight.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Bone Health Standard

A new acceptable bone health standard using an expanded surrogate for bone health needs to be defined for the flight environment.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Osteoporosis & Fractures

What is the incidence & prevalence of early onset osteoporosis or fragility fractures due to exposure to spaceflight.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Ocular changes

We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and post-flight.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Medical Event Risk Metrics

We need to characterize the medical conditions that can occur during exploration missions and their relevant associated end states, management options, and the capabilities necessary to manage them (what can happen, how bad could it be, what can we do to improve it?).

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Integrated Exploration Medical System Models

We need to develop integrated exploration medical system models for the Moon and Mars.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Cardiovascular Impacts from Weightlessness

Determine whether long-duration weightlessness induces cardiovascular structural and functional changes and/or oxidative stress & damage (OSaD)/inflammation, that can contribute to development of disease.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Fluid Intake

Is it necessary to increase crew fluid intake and, if possible, to what extent will it mitigate stone formation?

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Frequency of formation

What is the frequency of post-flight stone formation; the incidence and types of stones; and the time course of stone formation? How does stone formation correlate with food intake and hydration status?

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Medical Imaging

We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Back/Neck Injury

Limited capability to treat back/neck pain and injuries in the space flight environment

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Provide Oxygen to Crew

We do not have the capability to deliver supplemental oxygen to crew members while minimizing local and cabin oxygen build-up during exploration missions.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Bone Fractures

We do not have the capability to stabilize bone fractures and accelerate fracture healing during exploration missions.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Medical Suction

We do not have the capability to provide medical suction and fluid containment during exploration missions.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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IV Fluids

We do not have the capability to generate and utilize sterile intravenous fluid from potable water during exploration missions.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Renal Stones

We have limited capability to screen for, diagnose, and treat renal stones during exploration missions.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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Medical Inventory

We do not have the capability to track medical inventory in a manner that integrates securely with the medical system during exploration missions.

Evidence from medical records, spaceflight operations and research findings provides the basis for identifying the most significant human risks in space exploration, including physiological and performance effects from hazards such as altered gravity, radiation, hostile/closed environments, isolation and distance. Each risk is assigned to an HRP Element (divisions of human research) to identify knowledge gaps, or the critical questions that must be answered, in order to mitigate the risk. These gaps become the focus of research conducted to reduce the likelihood and consequence of risks becoming a reality. To learn more about the Risk Identification and Mitigation process and the tasks developed to reduce those risks for the program please click on the link below the gap for more information.

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